The museum was opened on May 28, 1976 in the wing of a big 2-storey house from the mid 19th century made out of bricks of merchants Stoletovs, representatives of the old family forced to move from Novgorod to Vladimir at the time of Ivan the Terrible.
Eminent Russian physicist Aleksandr Grigorievich Stoletov and his brother, general Nikolay Stoletov, lived in this house.
Alexandr Stoletov became famous thanks to his discovery of the laws and principles of the outer photoelectric effect, which resulted in the creation of quantum and electron theories serving the base to the discovery of atomic power.
The museum's exhibition presents recreated interiors of large and small living rooms and also a collection of unique items from the first Russian physical laboratory opened by A.Stoletov in Moscow University. Letters, books, manuscripts, photos and personal items telling about research, military and diplomatic activity of the brothers Stoletovs can be found in the museum.