The Main Department Store, or GUM (from Russian acronym of "Glavny Universalny Magazin"), is one of the largest shopping malls in Europe located in the very heart of Moscow. The main facade of the building erected between 1890 and 1893 by architect Alexander Pomerantsev and engineer Vladimir Shukhov faces the Red Square. Prior to 1953 the GUM was known as the Upper Trading Rows. In 1952-1953 the building was restored and the place was called the State Department Store ("Gosudarstvenny Universalny Magazin"). Currently, the store is private but the owners did not want to change its name, and it was renamed in such a fashion that it could maintain its old abbreviation: the first word "Gosudarstvenny" (State) has been replaced with "Glavny" (Main), so that GUM is now an abbreviation for "Main Department Store". The GUM building is an architectural monument of federal significance.
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