Empress Elizabeth I seized power in 1741 thanks to the Preobrazhensky Regiment (Russian Imperial Guard). Two years later, so as to commemorate the event, she decided to erect a cathedral in the very court of the regiment.
Various architects took part in the construction of the baroque building consecrated in 1754, on the day of the Transfiguration of the Christ. Unfortunately it was entirely destroyed in a fire in 1825. Only the sacred items were saved.
Quickly after, it was decided to rebuild the cathedral. Vassily Stassov was put in charge of the construction and the new cathedral was completed in 1829. The baroque style was replaced by empire style.
Although it did not close during Soviet times, the cathedral lost many of the military items that it held as well as relics and icons.
Nowadays it is the home of one of the best choirs in Saint Petersburg. It is possible to thear them sing every day during religious services from 10am to 6pm.