Kremlin of Kazan
The Kremlin of Kazan is a unique monument of history and culture that has preserved the traces of three periods: of the Tatar, Russian and European times. The hill of Kremlin is the place of foundation of Kazan where the city started developing and extending from. The wooden walls and the towers of the old Kremlin were badly damaged during the seizure of the city by Tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1552. Only 8 towers of 13 have survived to this day.
The Kremlin was rebuilt completely in stone and brick in the late 18th c. The 1800-meters long walls of the Kremlin represent a rather complex military and engineering construction, the thickness of which reaches 6 meters in some places. On the top of the Kremlin hill there is the Suyumbike tower. At present the Kremlin is the representative center of the Tatarstan republic and the residence of the president of the republic. In November 2000 the Kremlin was included in the list of the world cultural and natural heritage.