Alexander Garden covers an area of about 25 acres, along Kremlin’s western wall, between the towers Uglovaya Arsenalnaya and Vodovzvodnaya.
It consists of three separate gardens (upper, middle and lower garden) created on Alexander I’s order after the restoration of Moscow devastated by Napoleon’s troops.
Russian architect Osip Bove was in charge of the work. Neglinka River that used to flow on this territory was buried, various species of trees were planted, flower beds and walkways were added.
They were unveiled in between 1821 and 1823. Known until 1841 as ‘Kremlin Gardens”, they were renamed after Alexander II’s coronation.
Rubble from houses destroyed by Napoleon’s army was used in 1841 to build the cave called “Ruins” at the bottom of Srednaya Arsenalnaya tower.
After the 1917 revolution, the obelisk erected in 1914 devoted to the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty, lost all its imperial symbols. It was turned into a monument to commemorate the philosophers and revolutionaries. In 1966, it was moved close to the cave.
In 1967, for the twenty-fifth anniversary of the battle of Moscow, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was unveiled along with the Eternal Flame.
The equestrian statue of Marshal Zhukov was erected in front of the History Museum in 1955 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the Soviet army’s victory.
Finally, in 1996 Russia Sculptor Zurab Tsereteli artificially recreated Neglinka River embellished with fountains and sculptures along the Upper Garden’s fence.